By: Farida Waled
In 2018 Universities in the UK reveals a higher median pay gap, 13.7% on average, than the national average of 9.1%.
This time of every year all employers of 250 or more members of staff are required to publish data showing the pay gap between male and female employees as of 31 March 2018, under a new legal requirement. The new legislation under the equality act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) was implemented in 2017 and it applies to both public and private sector companies.
Most universities in London reported improvements in the gender pay gap this year, however, the gap remains wide. Figures show Goldsmith College has the lowest pay gap where the average woman is paid 3.7 percent less than the average man, and the University of Westminster comes second with women paid 5.1 percent less than men according to data published on the University website.
Moreover, Imperial University has a pay gap of 7.6% in favour of men, which means for every £10 the average man earns, the average women take homes £9.24. University of LSE and Queen marry college lies at the bottom of the chart, with a pay gap of 14.9% and 15% in favour of men. Which makes them amongst the 78 percent of companies with a pay gap that prefers men in the UK.
However, the data also demonstrates a slight improvement in most universities compared to reports published in 2017, for instance, the median hourly pay gap in imperial college has reduced from median 9.4% in 2017 to 7.6% in 2018. City University of London also decreased from Median 16.2 percent to 13.7 percent. The research by University and College Union into staff on academic contracts revealed that the average median gender pay gap is 12 percent, and the average mean pay gap is 12 percent. Many universities are working on strategies to reduce the pay gap, however, according to experts, there is still a long way left.
Furthermore, the distribution of men and women across the pay quartiles indicates that the representation of women at senior levels is woefully low. Figures reveal that UCL female employees make up only 37 percent of higher-paid jobs and 64 of lower-paid jobs while men make 63 percent of higher pay jobs and 36 percent of lower jobs. Moreover, the Imperial College has a wider gender gap in senior roles where men make up 69.3 percent of high paid jobs and 47.7 percent of lower paid jobs. Moreover The University of Westminster male’s makes up 53.5 percent of higher paid jobs while women make up 46.5 percent of the same quartile, which makes it better than its rivals. In this report the median pay gap has been used to measure the difference, however, there are several methods to calculate it using the Office for National Statistics releases annual figures.
What is the gender pay gap?
The gender gap doesn’t necessarily mean paying males more than females for doing the same job or an equal amount of work, but means more men are in senior positions, and more women are in lower paid positions or more women in freelance or in part-time jobs. This led t0 men having a higher average salary than women average salaries. Paying women less than men for the same work is considered unequal pay and this has been against the law since the Equal Pay Act introduced in 1970.
In a huge step in 2018, Iceland became the first country to make it compulsory that all companies prove they are paying men and women equal wages by providing official certificates or face fines. However this is not the case in the UK yet, despite that the education sector is mostly dominated by women, men are still paid more than women.
How are university planning to close the gender pay gap?
Many experts’ said that society needs to change in order to narrow the gender gap, Additionally most universities published strategies and actions to implement in order to minimize the pay gap such as:
- Train Human resource employees to avoid gender bias
- Unconscious bias training for all staff
- Provide Flexible working hours for both men and women
- Encourage shared parental leave, by offering leaves for fathers
- Address inequality in caring responsibilities including men in senior positions
- Support academics returning from parental leave and offer them training programs to progress
- Make sure that all women have a positive experience in the workplace and have equal opportunities for getting a promotion
- Make sure to stop sexual and gender-based harassment
- Introduce a women’s leadership network
- Introduce leadership programs to help women explore and improve progress
- Develop initiatives which address the under-representation of women in the organization
What are the most issues faced by women in Britain?
According to a recent report released by Statista, 29 percent of women face a gender pay gap, 20 percent of females face sexual harassment and 20 percent faces domestic abuse. Fresh graduate and recently employed Sara, said: “ I want my colleagues to take me more seriously at work, and know that I am as capable as any man.” Louisa who works in a finance department said that she is the only female in the department. And added: “It feels weird to be the only women working with a lot of men.”
Stephanie who is a law student expressed her fear of not finding equal job opportunities when she graduates. She explained that some people trust men more than women and would rather pay men more.” In conclusion women in the UK still faces several gender bias issues that required attention and social change.
What is Median and Mean and how they are calculated?
Median pay gap
The median pay gap is the difference in pay between the middle-ranking woman and the middle-ranking man in an organization.
The median is normally calculated by putting the salaries for men/women in order and determining which salary lies in the middle of the list.
Mean pay gap
The mean pay gap is the difference between a company’s total s spend per woman and its total spends per man.
The mean is calculated by adding all of the hourly salaries for men/women and dividing by the number of men and women respectively